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Chiasmus: A Short Bibliography

Chiasmus: A Short Bibliography

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A.General Studies 

Welch, John W. “Chiasm, Chiasmus.” In Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its Reception. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2011.

________, ed. Chiasmus in Antiquity: Structures, Analyses, Exegesis. Hildesheim: Gerstenberg, 1981; Provo, Utah: Research Press, 1999.

________, ed. Chiasmus Resources. BYU, n.d.

Welch, John W., and Daniel B. McKinlay, eds. Chiasmus Bibliography. Provo, UT: Research Press, 1999.

B.Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon 

Bowman, Robert M. Jr. “Alma 36: Ancient Masterpiece Chiasmus or Modern Revivalist Testimony?” IRR, 2016. Mormons commonly cite Alma 36 as the supreme example of a long, complex chiasmus in the Book of Mormon. This article provides a long, technical response with full documentation.

________. “Chiasmus within Chiasmus in 3 Nephi 17:5-10?” IRR, 2016. Some scholars have claimed not only that 3 Nephi 17:5-10 is a chiasmus, but that it contains one or two smaller chiasmus structures within the larger one. This article explains why there is no chiasmus in the passage at all.

________. “Chiasmus, the Book of Mormon, and the Aquarian Gospel.” IRR, 2016. The third chapter of the 1907 book The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ, a modern apocryphal gospel, looks like a lengthy chiasmus. It has weaknesses or flaws as a chiasmus, but the alleged examples of chiasmus in the Book of Mormon are far worse.

________. “Chiasmus, Theology, and the New Testament in Mosiah 5:10-12.” IRR, 2016. The very first example of chiasmus discovered in the Book of Mormon isn’t a chiasmus at all.

________. “Mosiah 3:18-19—Ancient Chiasmus or Modern Composition?” IRR, 2016. Why this often-cited example of an Israelite chiasmus in the Book of Mormon is really a modern text.

BYU Studies Staff. “Special Feature: Chiasmus Research.” BYU Studies. BYU.edu, Sept. 8, 2015.

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. “Chapter 31: Alma 36–39.” In Book of Mormon Student Manual: Religion 121–122, 232–41. Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2009. Presents a new, improved chiasmus outline of Alma 36.

Duke, James T. “The Literary Structure and Doctrinal Significance of Alma 13:1–9.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 5, 1 (Spring 1996): 103-118.

Edwards, Boyd F., and W. Farrell Edwards. “Does Chiasmus Appear in the Book of Mormon by Chance?” BYU Studies 43 (2004): 103-30. [PDF document] Online version has 23 pages of supplemental material.

________. “Does Joseph’s Letter to Emma of 4 November 1838 Show that He Knew about Chiasmus?” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Dialogue Paperless: E-Paper #4, August 26, 2006.

________. “Response to Earl Wunderli’s ‘Critique of Alma 36 as an Extended Chiasm.’” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Dialogue Paperless: E-Paper #1, April 30, 2006.

FairMormon. “Book of Mormon/Anthropology/Language/Hebraisms/Chiasmus.” Last modified 10/5/2014. Lengthy quotations from some of Welch’s articles.

________. “Book of Mormon/Evidences/Hebraisms/Chiasmus.” Last modified 1/10/2015. An anonymous article on the subject, defending Welch’s argument against critiques.

________. “Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon.” MormonWiki. Last modified 6/23/2008. A “wiki” article on the subject, with background information on Welch’s discovery.

Lindsay, Jeff. “Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon.” Popular LDS apologetics site article defending Welch’s argument.

Parry, Donald W. Poetic Parallelisms in the Book of Mormon: The Complete Text Reformatted. Foreword by John W. Welch. Provo, UT: Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, BYU, 2007. Rev. ed. of The Book of Mormon Text Reformatted according to Parallelistic Patterns. Provo, UT: FARMS, 1992.

Reynolds, Noel B. “Nephi’s Outline.” In Book of Mormon Authorship: New Light on Ancient Origins, ed. Noel B. Reynolds, 53–74. Provo: FARMS, 1982.

Sloan, David E. “Nephi’s Convincing of Christ through Chiasmus: Plain and Precious Persuading from a Prophet of God.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 6, 2 (1997): 67-98. [PDF document]

Smith, Robert F. “Assessing the Broad Impact of Jack Welch’s Discovery of Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16/2 (2007): 68–73.

Welch, John W. “A Book You Can Respect.” Ensign, Sept. 1977.

________. “Chiasmus.” In Book of Mormon Reference Companion, ed. Dennis L. Largey, 182–86. Salt Lake City: Deseret, 2003.

________. “Chiasmus in Helaman 6:7–13.” In Reexploring the Book of Mormon, ed. John W. Welch, 230–32. Provo, UT: FARMS, 1992.

________. “Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon.” BYU Studies 10, 1 (Autumn 1969): 69–84 (reprint pagination, 1–15). Reprinted in Book of Mormon Authorship: New Light on Ancient Origins, ed. Noel B. Reynolds, 33–52. Provo: ReligiousStudiesCenter, BrighamYoungUniversity, 1982.

________. “Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon: or, the Book of Mormon Does It Again.” New Era, Feb. 1972, 6-11.

________. “Criteria for Identifying and Evaluating the Presence of Chiasmus.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 4, 2 (Fall 1995): 1–14. Reprinted in Chiasmus Bibliography, ed. John W. Welch and Daniel B. McKinlay, 157-74. Provo, UT: Research Press, 1999.

________. “The Discovery of Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon: Forty Years Later.” Journal of Book of Mormon Studies 16, 2 (2007): 74–87, 99.

________. “Forty-five Years of Chiasmus Conversations: Correspondence, Criteria, and Creativity.” FAIR Conference, 2-3 Aug. 2012.

________. “How Much Was Known about Chiasmus in 1829 When the Book of Mormon Was Translated?” FARMS Review 15, 1 (2003): 47–80.

________. “A Masterpiece: Alma 36.” In Rediscovering the Book of Mormon, ed. John L. Sorenson and Melvin J. Thorne, 114–31. Salt Lake City: Deseret; Provo: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1991.

________. “Parallelism and Chiasmus in Benjamin’s Speech.” In King Benjamin’s Speech: “That Ye May Learn Wisdom”, ed. John W. Welch and Stephen D. Ricks, 315–410. Provo, UT: FARMS, 1998.

________. “A Steady Stream of Significant Recognition.” In Echoes and Evidences of the Book of Mormon, ed. Donald W. Parry, Daniel C. Peterson, and John W. Welch, 340–47 [331–87]. Provo, UT: FARMS—BYU, 2002.

________. “A Study Relating Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon to Chiasmus in the Old Testament, Ugaritic Epics, Homer, and Selected Greek and Latin Authors.” Master’s thesis, BYU, 1970.

________. “What Does Chiasmus in the Book of Mormon Prove?” In Book of Mormon Authorship Revisited: The Evidence for Ancient Origins, ed. Noel B. Reynolds, 199-224. Provo, UT: FARMS, 1997.

Wunderli, Earl M. “Critique of Alma 36 as an Extended Chiasm.” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 38, 4 (Winter 2005): 97–113.

________. “Earl Wunderli Responds.” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Dialogue Paperless: E-Paper #2, April 30, 2006.

________. An Imperfect Book: What the Book of Mormon Tells Us about Itself, 243–54. Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2013.

C.Chiasmus in Non-Mormon Literature

Aune, David E. The Westminster Dictionary of New Testament and Early Christian Literature and Rhetoric, 93-96. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003.

Blomberg, Craig L. “The Structure of 2 Corinthians 1–7.” Criswell Theological Review 4 (1989): 3-20. Lists nine criteria for identifying a text as a chiasmus.

Boda, Mark J. “Chiasmus in Ubiquity: Symmetrical Mirages in Nehemiah 9.” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 21 (1996): 55-70. Discusses criteria.

Brouwer, Wayne. The Literary Development of John 13–17: A Chiastic Reading. SBLDS 182. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2000.

Christenson, Allen J. “Chiasmus in Mayan Texts.” Ensign 18 (Oct. 1988): 28–31.

________. “Chiasmus in Mesoamerican Texts.” In Reexploring the Book of Mormon, ed. John W. Welch. Provo, UT: FARMS, 1992.

________. “The Use of Chiasmus by the Ancient Quiché-Maya.” Latin American Literatures Journal 4 (1988): 125-50. Reprint, Provo, UT: F.A.R.M.S., 1989. Reprinted as “The Use of Chiasmus by the Ancient K’iché Maya,” in Parallel Worlds: Genre, Discourse, and Poetics in Contemporary, Colonial, and Classic Period Maya Literature, ed. Kerry M. Hull and Michael D. Carrasco. 4th ed. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2012.

Heil, John Paul. “The Chiastic Structure and Meaning of Paul’s Letter to Philemon.” Biblica 82 (2001): 178-206.

________. The Rhetorical Role of Scripture in 1 Corinthians, 105-111. Studies in Biblical Literature Monograph Series 15. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2005.

Thomson, Ian H. Chiasmus in the Pauline Letters. JSNTSup 111. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995. See pp. 13-45 on criteria of a chiasmus.

Wright, David P. “The Fallacies of Chiasmus: A Critique of Structures Proposed for the Covenant Collection (Exodus 20:23–23:19).” Zeitschrift für Altorientalische und Biblische Rechtsgeschichte 10 (2004).